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目前位置:資料彙整   /  文化概念與特色  /  [斷代] 現代主義 Modernism
類型:概念
提供者:英文系 蘇文伶與墨樵、 Wen-ling Su & Joseph Murphy

3 Major Themes in Modernism

A.    Move away from representing social conditions (realism) to representing feeling

B.     Aesthetic concerns: shape, pattern, color

C.    L’art pour l’art: art for art’s sake

 

Move toward Modernism

I.   Artistic Movements

A.    Symbolism

B.    Impressionism

C.    Art Nouveau

II.  Influences of Modernism

      A.    Photography

      B.     Japanese Woodblock Prints

      C.    Philosophy: Nietzsche

III.  Elements of Modernism

      A.    Abstraction

      B.     Primitivism

      C.    Experimentation with time and space

      D.    The unconscious

I. Artistic Movements

A. Symbolism

A.    Literature: Mallarmé, “The Afternoon of a Faun” (1877)

B.     Stream of sensations merging past and present

C.    Music: Debussy, Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun” (1894)

YouTube - Debussy: L''après-midi d''un faune (Stokowski) part 1/2

      YouTube - Rudolf Nureyev dança "L''Après-midi d''un Faune", de Debussy

D.    Painting:

1.      “simplification of line”

2.      “arbitrary color”

3.      “expressive, flattened form” (Fiero)

 

Swiss Painter: Ferdinand Hodler (1852-1918)

Source: Hodler, “The Chosen One.” 1893-94. Acropolisinc. Web. 27 Sep 2011. http://cgfa.acropolisinc.com/h/p-hodler1.htm

Source: Hodler, “Tired of Life.” 1892. Wikigallery. Web. 27 Aug 2011. http://www.wikigallery.org/wiki/painting_238383/Ferdinand-Hodler/Tired-of-Life

B. Impressionism

A.     Form becomes color; colors placed side by side, not blended

B.     Painting in open air with new synthetic paints

C.      Focus on how one sees more than what one sees: scientific

1.     Chevreul, The Principles of Harmony and the Contrast of Colors

2.     von Helmholtz, studies of relationship between musical tone and color

D.     Ultra-realist, but moves toward abstraction

E.      Focus on modern, middle-class life; urban, suburban

(left) Source: Monet, “Impression: Sunrise.” 1873. Archive. Web. 27 Aug 2011. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/M/monet/sunrise.jpg.html

(right) Source: Monet, Water-Lily Pond, “Symphony in Green (Japanese Bridge).” 1899. Claude-monet. Web. 27 Aug 2011. http://claude-monet.org/artbase/Monet/1899-1899/w1515/apc.jpg

Source: Monet, “Rouen Cathedral.”1893. Secred-destinations. Web. 27 July 2011. http://www.sacred-destinations.com/france/rouen-cathedral

 

(left) Source: Renoir, “Le Moulin de la Galette.” 1876. Ibiblio. Web. 29 Aug 2011. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/renoir/moulin-galette/renoir.moulin-galette.jpg

(right) Source: Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre: “Rainy Weather, Afternoon.” 1897. Archive. Web. 27 July 2011.http://www.artchive.com/artchive/P/pissarro/montmartre_rainy.jpg.html

 

(left) Source: Caillebotte, “Paris Street; Rainy Day.” 1877. Artic. Web. 29 July 2011. http://www.artic.edu/artaccess/AA_Impressionist/pages/IMP_4_lg.shtml

(right) Source: Cassatt, “The Boating Party.” 1893-94. Tumblr. Web. 27 July 2011. http://cavetocanvas.tumblr.com/post/7668852375/the-boating-party-mary-cassatt-1893-94

Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849)

Source:  Katsushika Hokusai, “Mount Fuji Seen Below Wave at Kanagawa” ca. 1830. Artfund. Web. 27 July 2011.

Edgar Degas (1834-1917)

Source: Degas, “Before the Ballet.” 1890-92. Artgalleryabc. Web. 27 July 2011. http://www.artgalleryabc.com/degas/blog

Source: Degas, “The False Start.” 1870. Impressionistsgallery. Web. 27 July 2011. http://www.impressionistsgallery.co.uk/artists/Artists/def/Degas/pictures/18a.jpg

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926)

  

(left) Source: Cassatt, “The Bath.” 1892-92. Hosstuffworks. Web. 27 July 2011. http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/arts/artwork/paintings-by-mary-cassatt6.htm

(right) Source: Cassatt, “The Letter.” 1890-91. A1reproductions. Web. 27 July 2011. http://a1reproductions.com/the-letter-1890-91-by-mary-cassatt-oil-painting.html

Source: Cassatt, “Portrait of a Little Girl.” 1878. Wikipaintings. Web. 27 July 2011. http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/mary-cassatt/little-girl-in-a-blue-armchair-1878

C. Art Nouveau

A.     Ornamental style extremely popular in 1890s & early 1900s—a popular modernism

B.     Founded by Victor Horta of Belgium

C.      Serpentine lines, organic forms

D.     Modern industrial materials (iron, glass)—influence of Eiffel Tower (material and style)

E.      Influenced by Asian & Islamic art

          Often featured women with luxuriant hair, seducing or enchanting 

Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939)

(left) Source: Mucha, “Dance.” 1898. Blogspot. Web. 27 July 2011. http://thedelightsofseeing.blogspot.com/2011/02/art-nouveau.html

(right) Source: Mucha, “Job.” 1896. Blogspot. Web. 27 July 2011. http://thedelightsofseeing.blogspot.com/2011/02/art-nouveau.html

Victor Horta (1861-1947)

Source: Horta, “Stairway.” 1892-93. Avenuedsterio. Web. 27 July 2011. http://www.avenuedstereo.com/modern/horta_tassel.jpg

Auguste Rodin (1840-1917)

Source: Rodin, “Gates of Hell.”1880-1917. Ibiblio. Web. 27 July 2011. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/rodin/

Source: Rodin, “The Thinker.” 1880. Artchive. Web. 27 July 2011. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/rodin/thinker.jpg.html

II. Influences of Modernism

A.     Photography

Sources:

Motion Study: Thomas Eakins nude, running to left, ca. 1885, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts http://www.pbs.org/eakins/img_1882.htm

Thomas Eakins, "MOTION STUDY: male nude, standing jump to right", http://www.whyy.org/about/pressroom/8.jpg

B.     Japanese Woodblock Prints

1.     Imported to West beginning in 1860s

2.     Flat colors, curving lines

3.     “Empty” space

4.     Unique perspectives; bold   contrasts; discontinuities between near and far

5.     Everyday life & landscapes

6.     Theodore Duret: “Before Japan . . . the painter always lied” (790)

C. Philosophy: Nietzsche (1844-1900)

A.     “God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him” (in Fiero)

B.     A critic of democracy: democracy=mediocrity

C.      Critic of the idea of “progress”

D.     Celebrates the “superman” who rises above traditional morality

E.      Celebrates the “Dionysian” (irrational) over the “Apollonian” (rational) spirit in the Western tradition

III. Elements of Modernism

A.     Abstraction

B.     Primitivism

C.      Experimentation with time and space

D.     The Unconscious

A. Abstraction in Painting

Abstraction: nonrepresentational art: self-consciousness of medium: art for art’s sake

Maurice Denis painting is “a float surface with shapes, lines and colors assembled in particular order.”

Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)

Source: Cezanne, “The Basket of Apples.” C. 1895. Britannica. Web. 27 July 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/19596/The-Basket-of-Apples-oil-on-canvas-by-Paul-Cezanne

Source: Cezanne, “Still Life with Peppermint Bottle.” c.1894. Chisnell. Web. 27 July 2011. http://chisnell.com/art/PostImpressionism/Forms/Gallery.aspx

(left) Source: Cezanne, “Mount Sainte-Victoire Seen from Bellevue. c. 1882-85. Baymaugallery. Web. 27 July 2011. https://sites.google.com/site/baymaugallery/gallery9

(right) Source: Cezanne, “Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from the Bibemus Quarry.” c. 1897. Baymaugallery. Web. 27 July 2011. https://sites.google.com/site/baymaugallery/gallery9

Source: Cezanne, “Mount Sainte-Victoire.” 1904-1906. Baymaugallery. Web. 27 July 2011. https://sites.google.com/site/baymaugallery/gallery9

B. Primitivism

A.     Modernist influenced by traditional cultures of Africa and Oceania (Gaugin, Picasso, etc.)

B.     Background: 1889 Paris Exposition Universelle: showed arts of Asia, Africa and Oceania.

C.      Rise of anthropology: Sir James Frazer, The Golden Bough, a comparative study of traditional   

         flock customs.

D.     Modernist interest in primitive cultures arose from contact with those cultures.

E.      Ironically, this contact contributed to the destruction of those cultures.

Modernist primitivism is therefore nostalgic.

 

Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)

Source: Gauguin, “Day of the Gods (Mahana No Atua).” 1894. Artic. Web. 27 July 2011. http://www.artic.edu/artaccess/AA_Impressionist/pages/IMP_9_lg.shtml

Work Cited

Fiero, Gloria. The Humanistic Tradition. Vol. 2. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.

     
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